In the process of electrical energy conversion, grid-level energy storage systems play a crucial role in balancing generation and utilization. Batteries have considerable application potential in grid-scale energy storage systems due to their fast response, modularity, and flexible installation. Among several battery technologies, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) exhibit high energy efficiency, long cycle life, and relatively high energy density. Let’s take a brief look at the application of lithium-ion batteries in grid-scale energy storage systems.
Features and Performance of LIB
During electrical energy conversion, grid-level energy storage systems convert electrical energy in the grid-level grid into a storable form and convert it back into electrical energy when needed. The energy storage system in the grid needs to meet the power supply and demand balance of the grid. Therefore, in order to qualify for grid-scale energy storage system applications, gravimetric energy density needs to be considered, as well as long cycle life. In addition, low-cost and safe battery modules are crucial for building efficient large-scale energy storage battery systems.
Grid-scale energy storage systems play a key role in electricity consumption, providing power for various large-scale deployment applications. Electricity needs to change daily, seasonally, and even urgently. In addition, large peak-to-valley differences between day and night can be observed. Therefore, it is necessary to store generated power and provide idle power during peak loads through peak shaving and load balancing.
Frequency Scaling and Clipping
Frequency regulation requires fast response, high rate performance, and high power capability of energy storage systems, which is a challenge for batteries. In order to provide stable and reliable power in commercial and domestic applications, voltage and frequency stability should be considered.
LIB energy storage systems have been proposed for newly designed DC line-interactive UPS because Lib's high rate pulse discharge capability (up to 10 C in 10 seconds) attractive for load balancing services 150 kVA UPS in medical imaging machines in the system. The proposed system has two modules consisting of 54 LIBs, each delivering 170 V and 75 kW of pulsed peak (less than 5 seconds) power.
Electrochemical-based LIBs, characterized by high discharge/charge efficiency, high specific energy, and long cycle life, represent an attractive energy storage technology for grid-scale applications.
Renewable Energy Integration
Given its abundance and widespread distribution, renewable energy has emerged as one of the most cost-effective options for generating electricity in many regional grids. Solar PV farms can also benefit from an integrated LIB for storing electrical energy and smoothing output power. One of the main challenges of solar photovoltaics is the intermittency at night and when the sun is blocked. The combination with the battery forms a perfect operating system for high gradient power spikes and steady-state power requirements.
Although LIBs exhibit high energy density, one battery is not enough to meet the requirements of the grid. Therefore, batteries need to be assembled in parallel to increase current capacity or in series to increase voltage, which poses serious challenges to stability, voltage operation, safety, and cycle life.
To ensure safety, the LIB monitor must have the following features a balancing circuit that prevents any battery voltage or current from exceeding the limit by stopping the charging current, consideration should be given to addressing safety concerns and ensuring the stability of the temperature of the system, as well as monitoring the temperature and prevents the temperature of any battery from exceeding the limit by requiring the system to stop and cool down.
Lithium-ion batteries are playing an increasingly important role in grid-scale energy storage systems. To learn more, please contact us
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